The tree is native to the sub-continent including Pakistan. In Pakistan it is found in the Murree hills, Kahuta, Hazara, Swat, Azad Kashmir, Quetta, Kurram, and Gilgit. It has been successfully planted in the plains of Peshawar valley.

The sapwood is white merging into heartwood. The heartwood light red first, turning light reddish-brown with age. The wood is without characteristic odour, straight or somewhat interlocked- grained with medium fine even-textured.

The growth rings are distinct with naked eye, delineated by a narrow, light line of terminal parenchyma, 8-26 per inches. The wood is semi-ring porous i.e. the vessels are small to very small 51-238µ in diameter, solitary or radial group of 2-3, 60-181 per mm2. The wood rays are very fine, quite close 24-48 per mm2 in tangential and 8-18 mm in cross-section. The largest rays are 104 µ (52cells) in height 21.28µ (2cells) in width. The parenchyma is found in paratraches, meta-tracheal and terminal form. The para-tracheal parenchyma is very sparse, confined to occasional cells. The meta-tracheal parenchyma is extremely sparse, restricted to occasional cells scattered among the fibers. The terminal parenchyma forming a more less continuous uniseriate line delimiting the growth ring. The fibers of red willow are non-libriform, non-gelatinous, non-septate,0.6 -1.42 mm long, 10.33-27.45 in diameter with 2-6µ wall-thickness.

Cross view of Red Willow wood Tangential view of Red Willow wood Wood fibers of Red Willow

The wood of Red willow is used to make cricket bats, match sticks, basket, crates, paper pulp making.

1. Pearson, R.S and H.P. Brown.1932. Commercial Timbers of India.pp1012-101
2. Sheikh, M.I.1993. Trees of Pakistan. Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar.pp-120