The tree is native to Pakistan, Bhutan, Nepal, India and Afghanistan. In Pakistan it is found in the moist temperate zone of Murree-Galliat and Azad-Kashmir and in dry temperate zone of the Northern Areas, Takhte-Sulaiman, Swat, Dir, Chitral, Tirah and Kurram.

The heartwood is distinct from sapwood. The sapwood is yellowish white while the heartwood is with pinkish ting. The wood of Kail is straight-grained with medium—fine texture and has characteristic resinous odor and taste.

The Kail wood is non-porous. The growth rings are distinct and 4-20 per inches. The transition from early wood to latewood is somewhat gradual. The tracheids are arranged in definite radial rows and are 2-5 mm in length, 40-50µ in diameter. The springwood tracheids are squarish to rectangular or somewhat hexagonal with 2-3µ wall-thickness. The summerwood tracheids are rectangular or tabular with wall-thickness 4-7µ. The wood parenchyma is absent. The rays are very fine and not visible with naked eye, unevenly distributed and 2-7/mm in number. The ray tracheids are of two sorts (a) uni-seriate rays 15-20µ wide (1-16 cells) and upto 215µ in height (b) broader rays 45-50µ in width and upto 350µ in height . The Resin canals are present with thin-walled epithelium(1-4 cells thick).

Cross view of Blue Pine wood Tangential view of Blue Pine wood Radial View of Blue Pine wood

The timber is used in construction, joinery, house fitments, light furniture, packing cases, lamin-boards, flush doors, plane tables and railway sleepers after treatment. It is easy to treat with preservatives and can be seasoned well both in air and kilns.

1. Pearson, R.S and H.P. Brown.1932. Commercial Timbers of India.pp.1033-1037.
2. Sheikh, M.I.1993. Trees of Pakistan. Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar.pp-96.
3. Siddiqui, K.M., M. Ayaz and I. Mahmood.1996. Properties and Uses of Pakistani Timbers. Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar. pp 28-29.