The tree is native to South Asia including Pakistan.It has been successfully cultivated in many parts of the world. It can be seen throughout Pakistan but it grows best at lower elevations in the Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh and Balochistan..

The heartwood indistinct from sapwood. The Heartwood is reddish-brown to light yellow-brown, dull with smooth feel, without characteristic odour and taste, light to moderately heavy, uneven and interlocked grain and is of medium textured.

The growth rings are indistinct to reasonable distinct, delimited by a denser fibrous tissue and very narrow inconspicuous lines of terminal parenchyma, varying in width and slightly undulate on the margins. The Vessels are small to medium sized 55.72-351.14 µin diameter, occur solitary or in radial rows of 2-5 cells. The smallest vessels are present at the end of the growth rings and are 3-13 per mm2. The tyloses are absent and deposits of orange brown gum is frequently present. The parenchyma is terminal, paratracheal and meta-tracheal. The terminal parenchyma is visible with a hand lens of 10x and is undulate. The paratracheal parenchyma is visible as narrow halo about the vessels, forming several around the vessels, extend tangentially joining the vessels or end blindly. The metatracheal parenchyma is sparse and scattered in group. The wood rays are fine and invisible with naked eye, sometimes darker than the background, very close 28-48 per mm2 in cross section, 5-7 per mm in tangential section. The largest rays are 52.27 µ (4cells) in width and 391.03 µ (37cells in height). The fibers are semi-libriform, arranged in radial rows, non-septate, 0.49 short - 1.26 mm long, 11.78-32.36 µ in diameter with 2.71-7.92 µ wall-thicknesses.

Cross view of Beer wood Tangential view of Beer wood Wood fibre of Beer

The wood is used in rural constructions, agricultural implements, tool handles, walking sticks,tent pegs, cart wheels, bed legs and as picker arms in textile industry. Further, it is used to make charcoal and fuel wood.

1. Pearson, R.S and H.P. Brown.1932. Commercial Timbers of India.pp439-443.
2. Sheikh, M.I.1993. Trees of Pakistan. Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar.pp-133.
3. Siddiqui, K.M., M. Ayaz and I. Mahmood.1996. Properties and Uses of Pakistani Timbers. Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar.pp 61-62.